Extending Blocks

Extending Blocks

Extending constant gate

We prepared a macro for you about constant gates like X, Y, Z.

Simply use @const_gate.

Extending Primitive Block with parameters

First, define your own block type by subtyping PrimitiveBlock. And import methods you will need to overload

using Yao, Yao.Blocks
import Yao.Blocks: mat, dispatch!, parameters # this is the mimimal methods you will need to overload

mutable struct NewPrimitive{T} <: PrimitiveBlock{1, T}
theta::T
end

Second define its matrix form.

mat(g::NewPrimitive{T}) where T = Complex{T}[sin(g.theta) 0; cos(g.theta) 0]
mat (generic function with 112 methods)

Yao will use this matrix to do the simulation by default. However, if you know how to directly apply your block to a quantum register, you can also overload apply! to make your simulation become more efficient. But this is not required.

import Yao.Blocks: apply!
apply!(r::AbstractRegister, x::NewPrimitive) = # some efficient way to simulate this block

Third If your block contains parameters, declare which member it is with dispatch! and how to get them by parameters

dispatch!(g::NewPrimitive, theta) = (g.theta = theta; g)
parameters(x::NewPrimitive) = x.theta
parameters (generic function with 3 methods)

The prototype of dispatch! is simple, just directly write the parameters as your function argument. e.g

mutable struct MultiParam{N, T} <: PrimitiveBlock{N, Complex{T}}
theta::T
phi::T
end

just write:

dispatch!(x::MultiParam, theta, phi) = (x.theta = theta; x.phi = phi; x)

or maybe your block contains a vector of parameters:

mutable struct VecParam{N, T} <: PrimitiveBlock{N, T}
params::Vector{T}
end

just write:

dispatch!(x::VecParam, params) = (x.params .= params; x)

be careful, the assignment should be in-placed with .= rather than =.

If the number of parameters in your new block is fixed, we recommend you to declare this with a type trait nparameters:

import Yao.Blocks: nparameters
nparameters(::Type{<:NewPrimitive}) = 1
nparameters (generic function with 2 methods)

But it is OK if you do not define this trait, Yao will find out how many parameters you have dynamically.

Fourth If you want to enable cache of this new block, you have to define your own cachekey. usually just use your parameters as the key if you want to cache the matrix form of different parameters, which will accelerate your simulation with a cost of larger memory allocation. You can simply define it with [cachekey](@ref)

import Yao.Blocks: cache_key
cache_key(x::NewPrimitive) = x.theta
cache_key (generic function with 16 methods)

Extending Composite Blocks

Composite blocks are blocks that are able to contain other blocks. To define a new composite block you only need to define your new type as a subtype of CompositeBlock, and define a new method called subblocks which will provide an iterator that iterates the blocks contained by this composite block.

Custom Pretty Printing

The whole quantum circuit is represented as a tree in the block system. Therefore, we print a block as a tree. To define your own syntax to print, simply overloads the print_block method. Then it will appears in the block tree syntax automatically.

print_block(io::IO, block::MyBlockType)

A gate G can have following traits

If G is a MatrixBlock, these traits can fall back to using mat method albiet not efficient. If you can know these traits of a gate clearly, you can define them by hand to improve performance.

These traits are useful, e.g. a RotationGate defines an SU(2) rotation, which requires its generator both hermitian a reflexive so that $R_G(\theta) = \cos\frac{\theta}{2} - i\sin\frac{\theta}{2} G$, so that you can use $R_{\rm X}$ and $R_{\rm CNOT}$ but not $R_{\rm R_X(0.3)}$.

• Daggered - $G^\dagger$ We use Base.adjoint(G) to generate a daggered block.